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第三人称单数动词变化规则

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PRE-UNIT TEST 1
A. 第三人称单数动词变化规则 B. a/an, some和any的用法 C. many和much的用法 D. 一般过去时 E. 一般疑问句、特殊疑问句和否定句 F. 形容词与副词

G. 物主代词
H. 介词

I. 定语从句

A. Write these sentences again. Begin each sentence with He.
1. I am busy. He is busy. He is learning English. He has a new book. He lives in the country. He will see you tomorrow. He can understand you.

2. I am learning English.
3. I have a new book. 4. I live in the country. 5. I shall see you tomorrow. 6. I can understand you. 7. I must write a letter. 8. I may come next week. 10.I did a lot of work yesterday.

He must write a letter.
He may come next week.

9. I do a lot of work every day. He does a lot of work every day. He did a lot of work yesterday.

11.I played football yesterday. 12.I bought a new coat last week. 13.I have had a letter from Tom. 14.I was busy this morning. 15.I could play football very well when I was young. 16.I always try to get up early. 17.I might see you next week. 18.I always enjoy a good film. 19.I had finished my work. 20.I watch television every night.

He played football yesterday. He bought a new coat last week. He has had a letter from Tom. He was busy this morning. He could play football very well when he was young. He always tries to get up early. He might see you next week. He always enjoys a good film. He had finished my work. He watches television every night.

语法小结:第三人称单数动词变化规则
1. 一般现在时和一般将来时

I
一般情况在词尾加-s 以-s, -x, -ch, -sh结尾的词加-es 以辅音字母加y结尾的单词改y为i再加-es look teach

he
looks
teaches

study

studies

以辅音字母加o结尾的词加-es
have be 一般将来时助动词

do, go does, goes
have has is will

am
shall

2. 同型的情况
1)情态动词:can, must, may, could, should, might, would… 2)一般过去时:looked, taught, studied, did, went, had, was…

B. Write these sentences again. Put in a, some or any. 1. There are books on the desk. some 2. I drank glass of beer. a any 3. Do you want butter? 4. There aren?t any people in the street.

5. Tom has just bought
6. We have 7. Can I have some

new car. a apple trees in our garden.

bar of chocolate, please? a any 8. There isn?t bread in that tin. any ink in that bottle? 9. Is there any 10.Are there eggs in that basket?

语法小结:a/an, some和any的用法
1.不定冠词a和an的用法: a和an是不定冠词,表示泛指,常用于可数名词的单数形式前。 a用在以辅音发音开头的单词前,e.g. a university student, a one-eyed elephant; an用在以元音发音开头的单词前,e.g. an hour, an X-ray machine。 1)表示“一个”,意为one I have a new book. 我有一本新书。 2)表示“某一个”,意为a certain A Mr. Wang is waiting for you. 有位姓王的先生在等你。 3)表示一类人或物 A knife is a tool for cutting with. 刀是切割的工具。 Mr. Smith is an engineer. 史密斯先生是工程师。 4)组成词组或*语 a little, a few, a lot (of), a type of, a great many, many a, as a rule, in a hurry, in a minute, in a word, in a short while, after a while, have a cold, have a try, keep an eye on, all of a sudden…

2. 形容词some的用法: some既可以修饰可数名词又可以修饰不可数名词,常用在肯定句中。 1)用来修饰名词的单数形式,表示“某一”或“某个” She is playing chess with some boy. 她在和一个男孩下棋。 2)用来修饰名词的复数形式或不可数名词,表示“某些”,“若干”,“一 部分的”,“一些” I have some work to do this evening. 今晚我有一些事要做。 Some mushrooms are poisonous. 有些蘑菇是有毒的。 3)表示“好些”,“好几个”,“不少” He lived in London for some years. 他在伦敦住了好几年。 3. 形容词any的用法: any 既可以修饰可数名词又可以修饰不可数名词,常用在否定、疑问句和 if从句中。 1)表示“任一“,”每一” He wanted a job, any sort of a job. 他需要一份工作,任何工作都行。 2)若干,一些,一点,丝毫 If there is any trouble, do let me know. 如遇到麻烦,务必告诉我。 I haven?t any money to spare. 我的钱都用光了。 Are there any letters for me? 有我的信吗? 3)尽可能多的,所有的 Send me any data you can find. 把你能找到的所有资料送来给我。

C. Write these sentences again. Use many or much.
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. I haven?t any butter. You haven?t any cigarettes. We haven?t any milk. She hasn?t any biscuits. They haven?t any stationery. I haven?t got much butter. You haven?t got many cigarettes. We haven?t got much milk. She hasn?t got many biscuits. They haven?t got much stationery.

语法小结:many和much的用法
many和much做形容词时都表示“许多”的意思, 但是,many用于修饰可数名词的复数形式,而much 用于修饰不可数名词。

D. Write these sentences again. Use simple past tense. 1. He buys a new car every year. 2. She airs the room every day. 3. He often loses his pen. 4. He always listens to the news. 5. She empties this basket every day. 1. He bought a new car last year. 2. She aired it this morning. 3. He his pen this morning. lost 4. He listened to the news yesterday. 5. She emptied this basket yesterday.

E. Complete these sentences. Use simple past tense.
1. He bought a new car. Q: Did he buy a new car? Q: What did he buy? N: He didn?t buy a new car. 3. They were here yesterday. Q: Were they here yesterday? Q: When were they here? N: They weren?t here yesterday. 5. He gave you a pen. Q: Did he give you a pen? Q: What did he give you? N: He didn?t give you a pen. 9. You saw that film. Q: Did you see that film? Q: When did you see that film? N: You didn?t see that film. 10.He arrived at two o?clock. Q: Did he arrive at two o?clock? Q: When did he arrive? N: He didn?t arrive at two o?clock.

语法小结:一般过去时
1. 基本结构:主语+动词过去式+其他 否定形式:①was/were+not;②在行为动词前加didn't,同时还原 行为动词 一般疑问句:①Was/Were+主语+其他? ②Did+主语+do+其他? 特殊疑问句: ①疑问代词+was/were+主语+其他? ②疑问代词 +did+主语+动词原形+其他? 2. 用法: 1)表示过去发生的动作或状态 eg. They went to the park yesterday. 2)表示过去经常发生的动作或状态 eg. They always came to help us those days. 3. 动词变化规则 1)直接加-ed:work-worked 2)以e结尾的单词,直接加-d:live-lived 3)以辅音字母+y结尾的,变y为i加-ed:study-studied 4)以元音字母+y结尾的,直接加-ed:enjoy-enjoyed 5)以重读闭音节结尾的,双写最后的辅音字母加-ed: stop-stopped

6)不规则变化: am / is was cut are were do drink drive eat

cut
did drank drove ate

have
hear keep know leave

had
heard kept knew left

say
see sell send

said
saw sold sent

become became begin break began broke

speak spoke

bring
built buy catch choose

brought
built bought caught chose

feel
find

felt
found

lose
make meet pay put

lost
made met paid put

stand
take teach tell think

stood
took taught told thought

forget forgot get give got gave

come
cost

came
cost

go
grow

went
grew

have
run

had
ran

win
write

won
wrote

E. Complete these sentences. Use general question, special question and negation.
2. She can come tomorrow. Q: Can she come tomorrow? 6. He lives next door. Q: Does he live next

Q: When can she come?
N: She can?t come tomorrow. 4. He must leave early.

door?
Q: Where does he live? N: He doesn?t live next

Q: Must he leave early?
Q: Why he must leave early? N: He needn?t leave early. 8. He has found his pen.

door.
7. You know him well. Q: Do you know him well? Q: How well do you

Q: Has he found his pen?
Q: What has he found? N: He hasn?t found his pen.

know him?
N: You don?t know him well.

语法小结:一般疑问句、特殊疑问句和否定句
1. 情态动词:must, can/could, may/might, ought to, shall/should, will/would… 1)基本结构:主语+情态动词+动词原型+其他 2)否定形式:主语+情态动词+not+动词原型+其他 注意:must的否定形式是needn?t 3)一般疑问句:情态动词+主语+动词原型+其他? 4)特殊疑问句: ①疑问代词(除why)+情态动词+主语+动词原 型+其他? ②Why+主语+情态动词+动词原形+其他? 2. 一般现在时 1)基本结构: ①主语+am/is/are+其他; ②主语+动词原型/动词 第三人称单数形式+其他 2)否定形式: ①主语+am/is/are+not+其他? ②主语+助动词 do/does+not+动词原型+其他? 3)一般疑问句: ①Am/Is/Are+主语+其他? ②助动词Do/Does+ 主语+动词原型+其他? 4)特殊疑问句: ①疑问代词+am/is/are+主语+其他? ②疑问代词 +助动词do/does+主语+动词原形+其他?

F. Complete these sentences. Use adverbs.
1. He read the phrase 2. He worked 4. He worked lazily 3. He cut himself 5. The door opened slowly . (lazy) . (bad) . (careful) .(sudden) . (slow)

badly carefully

suddenly

语法小结:形容词转换副词
1. 副词(adverb,简写为adv)是一种用来修饰动词、形容词、全 句的词,说明时间、地点、程度、方式等概念的词。副词可分为: 地点副词、方式副词、程度副词、疑问副词和连接副词。 2. 形容词转变成副词的规则: 1)直接加-ly:slow-slowly 2)以辅音字母+y结尾的,变y为i加-ly:lazy-lazily 3)部分以不发音的-e结尾的,去e加-ly:true-truly

G. Write these sentences again. Use short forms.
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. He will arrive tomorrow morning. She will come this evening. I shall see you the day after tomorrow. He will not believe me. We shall not remain here. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. He?ll arrive… She?ll come… I?ll see you… He won?t believe… We shan?t remain…

语法小结:be、助动词、情态动词的缩写形式
1. 肯定形式: I am-I?m, he is-he?s, you are-you?re, she will-she?ll, I shall-I?ll, it has-it?s, they have-they?ve 2. 否定形式: is not—isn?t are not—aren?t was not—wasn?t were not—weren?t has not—hasn?t have not—haven?t will not—won?t would not—wouldn?t shall not—shan?t should not—shouldn?t do not—don?t did not—didn?t ought not—oughtn?t dare not—daren?t

H. Complete these sentences. Use pronouns.
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. These things belong to my husband. They are . his This coat belongs to me. It is mine . These shoes belong to my wife. They are hers . These pens belong to Tom and Betty. The pens are theirs . yours This suitcase belongs to you. It is .

语法小结:物主代词
1. 英语中的物主代词可分为形容词性物主代词和名词性物主代词。 形容词性物主代词起形容词的作用,用在名词前;名词性物主代词 起名词的作用。为避免重复使用名词,有时可用“名词性物主代词” 来代替“形容词性物主代词+名词”的形式。也就是说,名词性物 主代词=形容词性物主代词+名词 2. 物主代词:

主格
名词性物主代词

I

we
our

you
your

he
his his

she
her

it
its

they
their theirs

形容词性物主代词 my

mine ours yours

hers its

I. Complete these sentences. Use comparison of adjectives.
1. It is cool today, but it was 2. It is wet today, but it was cooler yesterday. wetter yesterday. 3. He?s late again today, but he was later yesterday. 4. This test is easy, but that one is easier . 5. This book is expensive, but that one more expensive . is larger 6. This bookcase is large, but that one is 7. That film was interesting, but the other one more interesting . was 8. Betty is pretty, but Jane is more beautiful . 10.Tom is intelligent, but Bill is is prettier . 9. Miss Green is beautiful, but Miss White

.

more intelligent .

语法小结:形容词和副词的比较级
1. 比较级的构成 : 1)一般情况下在形容词和副词后直接加-er 2)以-e结尾的形容词和副词加-r 3)以辅音字母 + y 结尾的,改y为i, + -er 4)重读闭音节的单词,双写最后一个辅音字母 + -er 5)多音节单词的比较级和最高级分别在单词前加more 6)不规则变化 原级 good / well bad / badly many / much 比较级 better worse more

little
far old

less
farther (表示距离远) further (表示程度深) older (可以表示旧的、年长的,作表语,后接than) elder (作定语,仅仅表示兄弟姐妹间的长幼关系)

J. Put in the right word or phrase: yesterday, last night, tomorrow etc.
The date today is Monday, March 5th. 1. I saw him yesterday (Sunday, March 4th). 2. I shall see him tomorrow (Tuesday, March 6th). today 3. I shall see him (Monday, March 5th). 4. I shall see him this afternoon (Monday, March 5th— afternoon). 5. I shall see him the day after tomorrow (Wednesday, March 7th). 6. I saw him the day before yesterday (Saturday, March 3rd). last night 7. I saw him (Sunday, March 4th—night). 8. I shall see him tomorrow morning (Tuesday, March 6th— morning). 9. I shall see him this morning (Monday, March 5th— morning). 10.I saw him yesterday afternoon (Sunday, March 4th— afternoon).

K. Put in at, in or on.
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

He is going to telephone at five o?clock. My birthday is May 21st. on It is always cold in February. My father was there in 1984. He is going to arrive on Tuesday.

L. Put in across, over, between, off along, in, on, into, out of, or under.
1. The airplane is flying over the village. 2. The ship is going under the bridge. 3. The boy is swimming across / in the river. 4. Two cats are running along the wall. 5. My books are on the self. 6. The bottle of milk is in the refrigerator. 7. The boy is jumping off the branch. 8. Mary is sitting between her mother and her father. 9. It is 9 o?clock. The children are going into class. 10.It is 4 o?clock. The children are coming out of class.

语法小结:介词
1. across 1)横越,穿过 We walked across the street. 我们穿过马路。 2)在...那边 He stared at the Englishman across the table. 他两眼一直 盯着坐在桌子对面的那个英国人。 3)与...相交叉 The two lines cut across each other. 两条线相互交叉。 2. along 1)(表示位置)沿着…的某地点;在…旁的某地方 His room is along this passage. 他的房间在这条通道上。 2)(表示方向)沿着,循着,顺着 I took my dog for a walk along the river. 我带着狗沿那条河 散步。 3)(表示方位)靠着 There is a striped sofa along the wall. 有一张靠墙放着的有 条纹的沙发。

3. at 1)在...地点 They were already waiting at the gate when I got there. 2)在...时刻 Jane will meet her boy friend at Christmas. 3)向,朝,对着 Don?t shout at me. 4. 在...方面 He is an expert at troubleshooting. 5)因为,由于 I woke at the sound of the bell. 随着铃响,我醒了。 6)从事于,忙于 He is working hard at this thesis. 他正在努力地撰写论文。 7)以(某种价格、速度等) They sold the cloth at a dollar a yard. 4. between
可以表示位置、时间、数目、距离、范围、等级、关系等,意为“在… 之间”或“在…之中”,常用于短语“between twelve…and…”之中。

5. in 1)(表示位置)在…里面;在,于;在…部位上 They live in France. 他们住在法国。 2)(表示时间)在…时期,在…之后,在过程中 I cannot see you now, come back in half an hour. 3)(表示方向)往…内,朝…方向 I saw him go in the shop. 我看到他走进了商店。 4)(表示状态)处于…之中,在…情况下 Martin was in his pajamas. 马丁穿着睡衣。 5)(表示方式)用,以,按,乘,以…形式 They were speaking in Italian. 他们在讲意大利语。 6)(表示原因)由于,为了 He went in fear of his life. 他为自己的性命担忧, 所以走了。 7)(表示领域、范围)在…以内 It is not in my power to do that. 做那事非我力所能及。 8)(表示结果)当做,作为 What did you give him in return? 你给他什么作为报答呢? 9)(表示目的)为了 They set off in search of the lost child. 他们出发去寻找走失的 孩子。

6. into 1)(表示时间)持续到,进行到 The meeting carried on into the afternoon. 会议一直延 续到下午。 2)(表示方向)进入…中,到…里 He came into the room. 3)(表示状态)进入…状态,欠…债 They burst into laughter. 他们突然大笑起来。 4)(表示对象)撞上,渗进,非常喜欢 He bumped into me. 他撞上了我。 The oil will soak into the wood. 油会渗进木头里。 She is into music. 她喜欢音乐。 5)(表示目标)对着,朝着 She looked into my eyes. 她盯着我的眼睛看。 6)(表示结果)分成,变成 He sawed the stick into pieces. 他把棍子锯成几截。 7)(表示所属)输入 The information goes into a computer.

7. off 1)(表示位置)在…的外面,在…的沿海 The boat anchored off the fort. 那艘船停在堡垒外面。 2)(表示时间)在…之前 It is a few minutes off three o'clock. 还有几分钟就三点了。 3)(表示方向)从…,通向,偏离,从…离开 He fell off the ladder. 他从梯子上掉下来。 8. on 1)(表示位置)在…上 2)(表示时间)在…之时 On arriving home, I was met by my daughter. 3)(表示状态)系于,悬于;附于 A picture hangs on the wall. 墙上挂着一幅画。 4)(表示方式)乘,坐,骑 She will leave on an early train. 她将乘早班火车离开。 5)(表示方位)在…方位 The town stands on the left bank of the river.

9. out of 1)从…里面(走出);离开 2)从…的状态中(离开) We're out of danger. 我们现在脱离了危险。 3)越出…之外 Out of sight, out of mind. 离久情疏。 4)缺乏,没有 They're out of water. 他们缺水。 10. over 1)(表示位置)在…的正上方;在…的上面;在…的上空 The clouds are right over us. 现在云正在我们的头顶上。 2)(表示位置)遍布在…上面,扩展到…全部 Brilliant light poured over me. 耀眼的光洒遍我的全身。 3)(表示方向)越过,从一边至…的另一边 Instead of opening the gate, we climbed over it. 11. under 1)在…下面,在…底下 2)少于,低于 He cannot be under thirty years of age. 3)在…情况下,在…过程中 The car is under repairs. 这辆汽车在修理中。

M. Put in Who or Which.
1. Which 2. 4. Who Who 3. Which 5. Which hat did you buy? broke this plate? bus did you catch? is knocking at the door? of the two books do you want?

语法小结:who & which的用法
who用作疑问代词,意为“谁”、“什么人” which可用作疑问代词,意为“哪一个”、“哪一些”,也

可用作形容词,意为“哪一”

N. Join these sentences in the same way. Use who, whom or which.
1. This is the car. The mechanic repaired it yesterday.

This is the car which the mechanic repaired yesterday.
2. He is the man. I invited him to the party. He is the man whom I invited to the party.

3. These are the things. I bought them yesterday.
These are the things which I bought yesterday. 4. He is the man. He came here last week.

He is the man who came here last week.
5. He is the policeman. He caught the thieves. He is the policeman who caught the thieves.

6. She is the nurse. She looked after me. She is the nurse who looked after me.

7. She is the woman. I met her yesterday.
She is the woman whom I met yesterday. 8. I am the person. I wrote to you.

I am the person who wrote to you.
9. They are the people. I saw them yesterday. They are the people whom I saw yesterday.

10.They are the trees. We cut them down yesterday.
They are the trees which we cut down yesterday.

语法小结:定语从句
定语从句是由关系代词或关系副词引导的从句,其作用是作定语修饰主 句的某个名词性成分,相当于形容词,所以又称为形容词性从句,一般紧 跟在它所修饰的先行词后面。 1. 指人的关系代词:who(作主语)、whom(作宾语)、that(作主语 或宾语)、whose(作定语) The teacher will punish the students who / that are lazy. Professor Li is one of the professors whom / that I admire. Mr. Johns whose life was once very hard, is now successful in his business. 2. 指物的关系代词:which(作主语或宾语)、that(作主语或宾语)、 whose(作定语) He bought a book which / that is written by O? Henry. These birds which / that he set free were a gift from his aunt. The big room whose windows are red is mine.

O. Complete these sentences. Use the plural form of the given nouns.
1. I can see some spoons, but I can?t see any

knives boxes
shelves

(knife).
(box). (shelf).

2. I can see some hammers, but I can?t see any

3. I can see some cupboards, but I can?t see any
4. I can see Mr. Hones and Mr. Brown, but I can?t see their

wives

(wife).
dishes (dish).

5. I can see some cups, but I can?t see any

语法小结:可数名词的复数形式
1. 可以以数计算的事物名词称为可数名词,前面可加不定冠词 或其相应的代词(如another, one, some, every, each等),并 能用于复数形式。一般说来,个体名词和集体名词是可数名词,可 数名词有单数形式和复数形式。 2. 可数名词的复数形式 1)一般在单数名词后直接加-s 2)以s, sh, ch, x结尾和以辅音字母+o结尾的名词加-es 例如:hero-heroes, tomato-tomatoes, piano-pianos, photo-photos, radio-radios 3)以f或fe结尾的名词,改f或fe为v,再加-es 例如:shelf-shelves, leaf-leaves, roof-roofs, chief-chiefs, thief-thieves 4)以辅音字母+y结尾的名词,改y为i,再加-es 例如:baby-babies, play-plays 5)不规则变化的名词 例如:man-men, foot-feet, sheep-sheep, deer-deer, child-children, mouse-mice, Chinese-two Chinese, Englishman-Englishmen, German-Germans, editors-inchief, grown-ups, a man teacher-two men teachers

P. Read the story carefully. Write answers to these questions.
Possible answers: 1. No, I didn?t. I took her to a party. 2. Yes, I did. 3. She sat near the window. 4. A middle-aged lady (came into our compartment). 5. She was middle-aged. 6. She sat opposite Sally. 7. She said “Hello” to Sally. 8. To make herself beautiful. (She did it to make herself beautiful.) 9. No, she didn?t. She thought she was ugly. 10.She said, “But you are still ugly.” (She said she was still ugly.)



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